Explaining basic terms

It's important to be informed with basic terms for Genetics.


Basic Terminology

Term Explanation
Heredity It is the phenomenon of Parents' biological attributes (Genetic traits) getting transmitted to children. All living organisms inherit the genetic traits from their parents, and children being alike with their parents is due to the genetic traits.
Gene Gene is the fundamental unit of a genetic trait. A human owns roughly 20,000 genes, and each gene consists of information for constructing and maintaining the life.
Genome Genome is a compound word of gene and ome which signifies the aggregation of genetic information of a human.
DNA DNA is an acronym for Deoxyribonucleic acid and a substance that contains several genetic information of an organism. It is composed of 4 types of bases (Adenine[A], Thymine[T], Guanine[G], Cytosine[C]). A human posesses roughly 3 billion pairs of DNA sequences.
Chromosome A human posesses 22 pairs of autosomal chromosome and 1 pair of sex chromosome, 23 pairs in total. The sex chromosome determines the sex of the new life: woman if it's XX, man if it's XY.
Allele An allele is a variant form of a given gene that is located in the same position with a pair of chromosomes descent from parents(sperm, egg).

SNP(Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)

SNP (Single Nucieotide Polymorphism) is the most common base sequence variation. There exist over 12 million SNP in human genome, and SNP is known for the most important factor to determine individual physical features, skin color, disease susceptibility, and trait difference. Special treatments, disease anticipation of the individuals for disease related differences of SNP are being researched and developed.




Genotype is a DNA combination that shows the trait of a living organism expressed through a semiotic.
Phenotype is a trait that shows outwardly up as a result of genotype combination.



Effect(Risk) genotype & Non-Effect(Fine) genotype is expressed in SNP as uninfluential Reference allele and
Alternative allele, and shows certain difference depen-
ding on the condition of Alternative allele. In the report, Effect(Risk) genotype are highlighted so that it's easily understood.

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